Human Resource Dictionary (HRD - 1) - Key Terms - 1

Management Process

The five basic functions of management are: planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling.

Human Resource Management

The staffing functions of the management process. Or, the policies and practices needed to carry out the "people" or human resource aspects of a management position, including recruiting, screening, training, rewarding, and appraising.


The right to make decisions, to direct the work of others, and to give orders.

Line Manager

Authorized to direct the work of subordinates-they're always someone's boss. In addition, line managers are in charge of accomplishing the organization's basic goals.

Staff Manager

Assist and advise line managers in accomplishing the basic goals. HR managers are generally staff managers.

Line Authority

The authority to direct the activities of the people in his or her own department.

Implied Authority

The authority exerted by virtue of others' knowledge that he or she has access to top management.

Functional Control

The authority exerted by a personnel manager as a coordinator of personnel activities.

Employee Advocacy

HR must take responsibility for clearly defining how management should be treating employees, make sure employees have the mechanisms required to contest unfair practices, and represent the interests of employees within the framework of its primary obligation to senior management.


The tendency of firms to extend their sales or manufacturing to new markets abroad.

Competitive Advantage

Factors that allow an organization to differentiate its product or service from competitors to increase market share.

Cost Leadership

The enterprise aims to become the low-cost leader in an industry.


A firm seeks to be unique in its industry along dimensions that are widely valued by buyers.



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